From 1721 to 1736, Fort King George was the southern outpost of the British Empire in North America. The fort was built to protect the young and struggling colony of Georgia against any potential threat from the Spanish in Florida to the south. The British constructed a cypress blockhouse, barracks, and palisaded earthen fort on the site in 1721. The fort was garrisoned by His Majesty’s Independent Company. The fort itself was eventually abandoned because of the hardship the garrison had to endure from the harsh coastal environment. But Scottish Highlanders came to the site in 1736 to found a settlement, called Darien, which eventually became a foremost export center of lumber until 1925. The state of Georgia has reconstructed the eighteenth-century fortifications using old records and plans. A museum offers displays and exhibits on the local Guale Indians, the old fort, the Scots of Darien, and the nineteenth century Darien sawmill.
Fort King George State Historic Site is located in southeastern Georgia, near Darien, 3 miles east of Interstate 95 exit 49.
This 19th century general store is a virtual time capsule. After the railroad passed by the town in 1873, trade diminished, and the store was abandoned with most of its inventory in situ. Today, the Brown County Historical Society maintains the store and staffs it with costumed interpreters. Couple a trip to the Harkin Store with your visit to nearby New Ulm, a picturesque town settled in the mid-1850s and located along the Minnesota River. The town’s significant role in the 1862 Dakota Conflict is examined in detail at the Brown County Historical Museum. Many of the buildings in New Ulm reflect the town’s Germanic heritage, including the August Schell Brewing Company and the Hermann Monument.
Harkin Store is located at 2 North Broadway on County Hwy. 21, eight miles northwest of New Ulm.
This reconstructed house was originally built in 1775 by Philadelphia bricklayer Jacob Graff, Jr. During the summer of 1776 Thomas Jefferson, a 33-year-old delegate from Virginia to the Continental Congress, rented two second-floor rooms and drafted the Declaration of Independence there. The first floor contains exhibits and a short film on the drafting of the Declaration. On the second floor, the bedroom and parlor that Jefferson occupied have been recreated and contain period furnishings. Also included are reproductions of Jefferson’s swivel chair and the lap desk he used when he wrote the Declaration. Declaration House, as it is now known, is part of Independence National Park in Philadelphia.
Located on the southwest corner of 7th and Market Streets, Philadelphia.
Seventeenth and eighteenth century settlements in frontier New England were often anchored by garrison houses, fortified homes in which residents could take shelter in the event of an Indian raid. These homes were usually constructed of massive logs. Their doors were reinforced by iron grates lowered by pulleys (called portcullis). Gilman Garrison constructed his garrison house in the late seventeenth century in Exeter, New Hampshire on a site from which he could defend his sawmill. The house was substantially remodeled in the eighteenth century by his descendant, Peter Gilman, a militia general and veteran of the French and Indian Wars, by adding a Georgian-style wing. The house is now preserved by the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities.
Gilman Garrison House is located at 12 Water Street, in Exeter, New Hampshire 03833. Take I-95 to New Hampshire Exit 2. Follow Route 101 west 3.5 miles to Route 108 south. Continue one mile to Exeter. Turn right onto High Street. The Gilman Garrison House is three blocks ahead, just after a small bridge.
At the time of the French and Indian War, No. 4 was the northernmost British settlement, thirty miles from its nearest neighbor. The fort was actually a fortified village, created by pulling together five existing province houses, building a sixth one, and connecting them with leantos, and a large two-story building containing the only entry gate into the fort. The recreated fort now standing in Charlestown, New Hampshire is a living history museum of this early period.
Fort at No. 4 is located in Charlestown, New Hampshire, 1 1/2 miles from Exit 7, off I-91.
American Revolutionary troops built a fort complex to guard against a British attack from Canada at this site along the Vermont shore of Lake Champlain. The troops named it Mount Independence in honor of the Declaration of Independence. The fort faced north and stood across the lake from the fort at Ticonderoga. The site was evacuated when British General John Burgoyne forced the surrender of Ticonderoga. Today the state of Vermont preserves the site with several miles of hiking trails that lead to the batteries, blockhouses, hospital, barracks, and other archaeological remains of the fort. The visitor center museum contains exhibits featuring many of the artifacts recovered during recent archaeological investigations.
The site is located approximately 50 miles south of Burlington, just west of State Route 22A and the village of Orwell.
Before Vermont was even a state, when it was still a sparsly settled region whose political status was disputed by New York and New Hampshire, Vermonters made two contributions to winning what was probably the most important campaign in the Revolutionary War. As General John Burgoyne advanced south through the Lake Champlain Valley toward Albany, he easily drove American forces out of Fort Ticonderoga, which had been assumed to be the major obstacle in his path. The American army retreated in haste from Ticonderoga toward Hubbardton, Vermont, which then has all of two houses. At Hubbardton, a detachment of the American army joined with some local militia to hold off the British pursuit for several hours. Only the arrival of Hessian reinforcements, and the prospect that the larger British forces would then be able to outflank them, drove the Americans from the field. Hubbardton was the first engagement in the campaign to show Burgoyne’s regulars that American troops could stand up to them in the field. Many of the Americans who fought at Hubbardton were also with General John Stark several weeks later when he inflicted a disastrous defeat on a Hessian detachment at the Battle of Bennington. The Hubbardton Battlefield is now preserved as an historic site by the state of Vermont. A visitor’s reception center houses a museum with exhibits on the battle and the Revolutionary War.
Hubbardton Battlefield is located 7 miles off U.S. Route 4, near East Hubbardton, Vermont.
Richmond Town began as a hamlet in 1690 and by 1730 it was the seat of the county government. The Staten Island Historical Society began restoration of the old hamlet in 1936 to portray the evolution of a Staten Island settlement during the seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. Historic Richmondtown is now a 100-acre park with more than two dozen historic buildings representing a variety of architectural styles across four centuries. The buildings include the Voorlezer’s House (circa 1696), the oldest remaining elementary school in the country, the Treasure House (circa 1700), where $5,000 in gold coins was found behind a wall, and the Grocery Store (circa 1870), which now displays the equipment of an old printing shop. The buildings display authentic furnishings, antique toys, vehicles, costumes, and memorabilia. Costumed reenactors model the life and the activities of householders, farmers, merchants, and tradesman of earlier eras.
Historic Richmondtown is located at 441 Clarke Avenue, Staten Island, New York 10306. To reach Historic Richmondtown by bus, take S #74 to Richmond Road and Court Place. By car, take the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge to the Richmond Road/Clove Road exit, and then turn left onto Richmond Avenue. Take Richmond approximately 5 miles. Historic Richmondtown is on the left. Or take the West Shore Expressway to Richmond Avenue, and turn left onto Arthur Kill Road to Clarke Avenue.
Holy Trinity is the oldest Christian congregation in the Delaware Valley. The first Christian services in the region were led by a priest of the Church of Sweden at Fort Christina in 1640. The church building was dedicated on Holy Trinity Sunday, July 4, 1699. When the last Swedish priest, Lars Girelius, left in 1791, the congregation called Joseph Clarkson, the Anglican assistant to Nils Collin in Philadelphia. In 1795, the charter was amended to allow the calling of one “ordained according to the ordination of the Lutheran or Episcopal Church.” The church graveyard holds the burial sites of many prominent leaders and churchmen of the colonial and revolutionary eras.
Old Swedes’ Church is located at 606 Church Street, in Wilmington, DE 19801.
Alamance Battleground preserves the site of an 1771 battle between armed farmers from the North carolina backcountry, called “Regulators,” and the colonial militia led by royal governor William Tryon. The Regulators had a number of grievances against the colonial government. These grievances were not yet, as they would be in a few years, with the form of the government itself, but rather with official abuses such as excessive taxes, dishonest sheriffs, imposition of illegal fees, and even the scarcity of money with which to pay the taxes and fees they owed. The association of “Regulators” was formed in the backcountry in 1768 to address the farmers’ grievances to officials in the eastern part of the colony. When their appeals to the government failed, the Regulators refused to pay taxes and fees, resisted administration of the law, and disrupted court proceedings. Governor Tryon mustered the militia, and marched against the Regulators in the spring of 1771. On May 16, the militia confronted about 2,000 Regulators on the banks of Alamance Creek in the heart of the backcountry. The relatively undisciplined Regulators were completely unable to hold their own against the colonial militia (who were about to prove in a few years that they could not stand in the field against real professional soldiers). The militia lost nine killed and sixty-one wounded; Regulator losses were much greater. Tryon executed seven of the fifteen prisoners he took. Many Regulators moved on to other frontier areas beyond North Carolina. Those who stayed were offered pardons by the governor in exchange for pledging an oath of allegiance to the royal government. Alamance Battleground is preserved today with a granite monument that was erected as a memorial in 1880. The park grounds also contain the Allen House, a log dwelling characteristic of the frontier, built by backcountry farmer John Allen around 1780 for his family. The house was moved to Alamance Battleground and restored after John Allen’s descendants donated it to the state of North Carolina in 1967.
Alamance Battleground is located in Burlington, North Carolina 27215. Burlington is in central North Carolina, off Interstate 40/85 between Durham and Greensboro. From Interstate 40/85 in Burlington take N.C. 62 south (exit 143). Follow the directional signs on N.C. 62 for approximately six miles. The site entrance is located on the right.